However, evidences of the chicken meat price sensibility to the exchange rate are weak for the analyzed period. On the other hand, the paper suggests the evidence of the commodity currency. The paper highlights the importance of analyzing effects of the frozen chick meat on exchange rate in Brazil in the recent period.
The variables used were soybean price, productivity, cultivated area, rural credit, investments in transportation, capacity of storage and land price in previous periods. The analysis is carried out with a panel data model, and it was observed that soybean price, which represents land revenue, has the major influence in the land price. In the agricultural and transition areas, increases in land demand have negative impact in the land price, due to the increase in the land supply.
On the other hand, in the traditional area, increases in the demand push up the land price, due to the inelastic land supply. The speculation variable was not important in the transition and traditional areas, but it has an important contribution to land prices formation in the agricultural frontier. During almost all the history of Minas Gerais State, its sugarcane production always presented as complementary to other major economy activities, both inside the state and in other Central-Southern regions in Brazil. From the nineties onwards, the sugarcane activity presented a significant economic importance for the state, with the occupation of the savanna of Minas Gerais and attracting investments.
This state began to have a prominence occupation in the ethanol and sugar production in Brazil. Specifically in Minas Gerais State cities, many aspects can attract the installation of mills and distilleries, with economic, social and environmental advantages and disadvantages. This paper verifies the evolution of the sugarcane agroindustry in Minas Gerais and the elements which have encouraged the location of mills and distilleries in some counties.
With a multivariate logistic regression analysis, it was found that the yield, the access to water resources, the land concentration, leased agriculture properties, the availability of formal workforce and the higher income of this workforce are aspects that have determined the presence of mills and distilleries in Minas Gerais cities, which can result in beneficial or harmful effects that should be verified in future studies.
Trades between orange growers and orange juice processing companies in Brazil have been characterized by conflicts, culminating in accusations of breach of contracts and cases of anti-trust violations in the Council for Economic Defense Cade. Recently, attempts to create a council, called Consecitrus, have failed, evidencing that conflicts remain.
Due to the evident fragility of the transactions between these agents, the aim of this study is to investigate whether there is indication of market power use by the processing companies in their dealings with growers. For this, the evolution of gross margins and price transmission are analyzed. The analysis of the margins revealed that the gains achieved by processors are significantly higher when the revenue obtained with the sale of byproducts is added to the juice revenue. It was found that the margins are underestimated when considering only the leading products in its calculation.
The analysis of price transmission showed that processing companies transfer price decreases for growers in the short-term and an asymmetry in the long-run. Therefore, there is an evidence of the market power use by orange juice processing companies, and this practice can generate cumulative losses for growers, since there is an asymmetry in the long-term with less than proportional price recovery. Com isso, a soja brasileira deixa de ser competitiva quando comparada aos seus dois principais concorrentes, Argentina e Estados Unidos.
Rates of Brazilian export and agricultural production have increased sharply over the last years, affected mainly by the significant increase of Chinese economic power. Thus, the Brazilian soybean is not competitive when compared to its two main competitors, Argentina and the United States.
A logistics alternative to export the grain is the use of ports in the Pacific Ocean and that links with the recently launched, fully paved, Transoceanic highway. This paper presents three possible scenarios that simulate the limited capacity of the warehouses of the four main Brazilian ports exporting soybeans, and is verified the importance of ports of Ilo Peru and Arica Chile to supply a casual crash logistics in Brazilian ports. After the simulation, some reflections on the needs of logistics improvements are inferred to increase the competitiveness of the Brazilian soybean.
This paper aims to analyze whether Brazilian smallholder farmers who adopt irrigation methods would be more resilient to climate change when compared to smallholders producing rainfed crops.
We developed a treatment effects model, based in the Propensity Score Matching technique, which can explain irrigation adoption and net revenues simultaneously. Temperature and precipitation projections for were used considering different climate scenarios according to the 4th Assessment Report of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Results confirmed the efficiency of irrigation as an adaptive strategy. For all simulation scenarios, land values of irrigators are, on average, approximately twice the value of rainfed smallholders. It can be concluded that there is need of public policies focused on developing strategies to cope with global warming effects in the agricultural sector. Moreover, given the importance of irrigation adoption as an adaptive measure, it is needed to encourage the expansion of credit lines for irrigation investments, especially for less capitalized farmers. The study, conducted in , is based on technician-methodological perspective of Anthropology, which has been conducted by two guidelines: the requirement of the field research and a case study.
The results have shown that activities that results in asymmetry of relations between men and women have still been reproduced in the scope of family farming, which does not help to reduce gaps in rural areas. However, it also shows that there is an opposite trend from women agriculturists who, through group work, have started an emancipating process to know their own needs. This analysis also enables to elaborate some considerations about public policies that intend to support family farming with gender emphasize.
For this purpose, a review of previous studies available was made.
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Retail technologies, internationalization of retailing, food retailing, retailing globalization, supermarket. Economic Governance of Property Rights: comparative analysis on the collection of royalties in genetically modified soybean seeds Guilherme Fowler de Avila Monteiro e Decio Zylbersztajn.
Aspects such as area, gross production value, productivity and revenues are analysed. Vitor Augusto Ozaki. Moreover, the results were divided by state and crop. However, in the short-run, the hypothesis of an existence of the J Curve was rejected. Results indicate that the agricultural sector is the main beneficiary of rural credit. This paper aims to analyze taxation on sugar and ethanol. For sugar, this difference is After that, through surveys with coffee farmers, it was observed that only In a third step, a logit model was applied for data. Para tanto, foram utilizados os modelos probit e probit ordenado.
For every 1. Results show a relation with the food quality inverse of social pyramid, mainly B and C Classes. Data Envelopment Analysis and the quantile regression were used. Pacta sunt servanda versus the social role of contracts: the case of Brazilian agriculture contracts Rezende, Christiane Leles; Zylbersztajn, Decio. This study explores the instability created by contradictory court decisions related with contract breaches.
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Forward marketing contracts represent an important source of resources to finance Brazilian agriculture, however a large number of contract breaches were observed during a period of marked increase in soy prices. The study analyzed judicial appeal decisions and a survey was carried with 70 farmers. The results show the difference of judges' interpretation and the existence of second order effects. The effects of court decisions were more requirements of guarantees and the reduction in the number of contracts.
Those soybean farmers who did not breach their contracts have also been negatively affected by the strategic reactions of trading and processing companies.
The concept of "social function of the contract" introduced in Brazilian civil code led to a higher degree of instability in contracts, raising transaction costs and motivating private economic sanctions. The role of formal and informal institutions in the economy of organizations is traditionally analyzed in terms of efficient governance mechanisms which minimize transaction costs.
Based on a different perspective, this paper focuses on coordination failures and the problem of lack of guarantees in sequential transactions. In particular, this research examines a bundle of guarantees which supports the transaction between producers and the meatpacking industry in the Mato Grosso do Sul state regarding the inefficiencies in the trading of ready-to-slaughter animals. A theoretical model based on Barzel involving property rights, guarantees and institutions is proposed for the understanding of coordination failures.
This model is empirically tested with two multiple logistic regressions: i an ordered logit model based on the producer's risk perception and ii a recursive bivariate probit model based on producer's risk perception and on the role of collective action. The findings suggest that formal institutions and collective actions play a relevant role in providing guarantees and, thus, representing a source of transaction costs minimization.
This study aims to analyze the relationship of path dependence in the economic and institutional system of ethanol in Brazil. Ethanol, after stages of growth and challenges, has become part of the Brazilian energy matrix. Even after the recovery of this sector in the s, when the flex-fuel technology and the GHG Greenhouse Gases emissions increased the ethanol demand in Brazil and abroad, the choice of ethanol as the main substitute of fossil fuels is still jeopardized by other renewable fuels and even by the discovery of new oil reserves in Brazil.
In order to succeed, the collision supporting the expansion of ethanol in the international market will have to handle a myriad of technological and institutional barriers in Brazil and worldwide. The rural agro-industries RA are understood as a strategic option for farmers. However, there are several factors which impacts negatively on the success of those institutions, unities. Moreover, there are several types of these organizations.
The study, aiming to meet the reality of RAs, seeks to quantify the influence of the economics, institutional and social factors in promoting their inclusion in the market as well as verifying whether this influence occurs differently to each the type of RA. The research covers the small and the mid-sized rural agro-industries, and the sample involved 40 agro-industries. A structured interview was conducted to collect the data.
Through a regression model, we have attempted to quantify the influence of each dimension, and the results show that the economic and institutional dimensions have similar influences to the insertion of RAs in the market and are approximately two times more influential than the social dimension, when regarding all the RAs of the sample.gohu-takarabune.com/policy/como/hugu-localizador-celular-sony.php
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When the sample is stratified by RAs types, the conclusion is that there are different influences of the dimensions of the study for different types of RAs. Contract and Organizational theories establish that complex organizations with diffuse ownership, such as agriculture cooperatives, should benefit from the separation of ownership and decision control. In developed economies, such as the USA and Canada, these organizations, aligned with the theoretical proposition, adopt governance models that promote the separation of ownership and decision rights. However, in Brazil, despite the lack ofquantitative studies that measure governance separation, anecdotal evidence suggests that ownership and decisions rights are concentrated in Brazilian cooperatives.
By means of a survey with 77 Brazilian agricultural cooperatives, this paper measures the degree of de jure and de facto separation of ownership and decision control, providing new evidences on the governance models observed in different countries. Different models coexist in Brazil, i. Further research is required in order to address the determinants of the variety of governance models in Brazil. This paper analyzes the importance of cooperative institutions in the Brazilian market of rural credit, focusing on the vision of those who demand loans.
The main objective is to show the importance of Cocrefocapi to finance sugarcane suppliers from Piracicaba, analyzing the influence of some factors in the decision of sugarcane suppliers, in order to choose this cooperative as the main financing institution.
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Two econometric models of qualitative response and a set of descriptive analysis were developed in this study. Results show that the land size is one factor which should be included when the demand for agricultural credit is analyzed. In addition, the econometric evidence shows that, bigger participation in the institutional capital of Cocrefocapi is not a factor which incentives members to borrow money in this Cooperative. On the other hand, although sugarcane suppliers who took loans in Cocrefocapi have chosen this institution because of lower transaction costs, results demonstrate that many of these people took loans in other institutions because they had other economic activities, which are not financed by Cocrefocapi.
Building on theories of frontier development and the livelihood approach, this paper illustrates the settlement process and land use dynamics of the Brazilian Cerrado, highlighting the importance of migration, agricultural unions and the government in contributing to the success of a settlement area towards capital intensification. Results suggest that the second generation seeks urban employment and education, with rural-urban migration becoming a key component of the recent frontier dynamics.