In the natural environment, actinolite and the other amphiboles are found in different morphologies, described as either asbestiform or non-asbestiform. Non-asbestiform minerals and their asbestiform counterparts i. Currently, only chrysotile and the asbestiform versions of the five aforementioned amphiboles are regulated substances. When mechanical stress is applied to non-asbestiform minerals, as when rock extracted from quarries is ground up to produce aggregate, for example, they can split and release particles of different lengths called "cleavage fragments.
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Following the identification of fibres of actinolite-asbestos and cleavage fragments of actinolite in rock granulate for road surfaces, ANSES was requested by the Ministries of Health, Labour and the Environment to carry out an expert appraisal on the exposure of workers to cleavage fragments, the potential health effects, and the methods or criteria for analysing materials and air.
In addition, the Agency also studied those amphiboles for which there are data raising health concerns and which have a chemical composition very close to that of any of the five aforementioned amphiboles.
As a general remark, ANSES stresses the difficulty of identifying health data specific to cleavage fragments, because of the co-exposures to asbestiform fibres or other respiratory risk factors, but also because of the absence of data regarding the dimensions or morphology of the mineral particles studied. In addition, the available studies only discuss dimensional criteria and none of the parameters influencing the toxicity of these particles, such as biopersistence, contaminants, surface reactivity, etc.
In the light of the data analysed, ANSES concludes that it is not possible to exclude a risk to health linked to exposure to cleavage fragments of actinolite, anthophyllite, tremolite, grunerite and riebeckite.
Moreover, some data indicate risks to health similar to those induced by asbestos for chemical species that are not currently regulated: winchite, richterite, fluoro-edenite and erionite. Finally, it has not been possible to find any exposure data specific to cleavage fragments, in particular because of co-exposure with asbestos fibres, and analytical difficulties in distinguishing them formally from asbestos fibres.
In the light of the data analysed, ANSES concludes that it is not possible to exclude a risk to health related to exposure to cleavage fragments of actinolite, anthophyllite, tremolite, grunerite and riebeckite, if their fibres are of a length specified by the WHO.
In addition, considering that the health effects observed for winchite, richterite, fluoro-edenite and erionite are similar to those of asbestos, ANSES also recommends that the regulations in force be extended to include these four mineral species. Furthermore, ANSES makes recommendations with respect to the conduct of work likely to lead to exposure to these mineral particles in quarrying and road works.checkout.midtrans.com/dating-websites-en-humanes-de-madrid.php
Fragments from France: The wartime orphan smuggled into Victoria by Australian troops
Since these territories were under British and French rule, mapmaking had to be done covertly. Many intelligence officers were sent on mock ethnographic and archeological expeditions to acquire the needed information from the area of interest.
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Von Oppenheim was suspected to be one of these officers, as the French knew that he had been coming back to the same location on the border between Syria and Turkey for the past 30 years and were afraid that he was radicalizing the Bedouin tribes and preparing an undercover coup against the colonial powers. In reality, von Oppenheim was more interested in Tell Halaf for its archeological remains since when he had accidentally discovered parts of a temple and had been coming back since then to uncover the entire complex.
Following the division of finds with the French Mandate, the material that remained in Syria was transported to Aleppo and formed the foundational endowment of the National Museum of Aleppo, which opened its doors in Upon his return to Berlin, Oppenheim tried to secure a location for his portion of the finds in the Pergamon Museum but was unsuccessful in doing so.
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Undeterred by the news, he opened his own private Tell Halaf Museum in an abandoned factory building in Charlottenburg and started writing about his expeditions. In , during one of the nightly bombing raids on Berlin, the building and most of the objects were destroyed.
Only the large statues made of basalt stone survived the fire. But after firefighters dowsed the flames, the suddentemperature change between the cold water and the hot stone shattered the artifacts. Despitelogistical difficulties, the director of the Museum of the Ancient Near East inBerlin managed to get the shattered fragments crated upon behalf of von Oppenheim.