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Meaning of "free spirit" in the English dictionary

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Kiss of the Bees Walker Family Mysteries. Meaning of "free spirit" in the English dictionary It is a whole compendium at the truth production Teachings and organizes hundreds and hundreds of articles and learn papers written during the last twenty years. Furthermore, bringing a wild animal home correlates with a certain expectation of him or her to express sympathy to people.

Wildness also implies a certain sense of independence for the captured animals in my work. Yet, my ethnography demonstrates that being wild at home is not a social role, but a space for displaying personality and making a network of relationships with people. Indeed, relationships between people and wild animals are very hard to approach via participant observation, since it is very unlikely that a researcher can capture the moment when a wild animal is taken into a reindeer camp or a village: luck is very much required. Thus, anthropologists are dependent on sharing stories and memories with people who have had experience of having wild animals to hand.

This specificity influenced my methodical strategies. I became very curious about these stories from the beginning, but they were not numerous enough for me to approach them anthropologically: it was difficult to consider them as a distinct theme and a cultural reality. I will however use these narratives as a comparative element for the analysis of stories I gathered among Evenki hunters and reindeer herders in the Amudisy area in Kalar District in June David G. This small expedition consisted of three participants: Prof. We had the principal tasks of documenting human-reindeer relations, the history of Evenki camp sites, and the daily activities of the reindeer herders.

According to the narratives of my informants, wild animals encounter accidental deaths or they leave people after a short while to go back to their habitats. Stories about local experiences of dealing with wild animals are accompanied by other practices, such as domestic chores, cooking, making rooms in a tent, working with reindeer, washing the dishes, and taking care of the camp surroundings. The border between the two thus disappears: people imitate animals, while the latter appear in dreams like human beings who are willing to give themselves to a hunter.

Although this argument triggered my research, there is almost no relationship between the two. Bringing wild animals into a camp has little to do with the idea of hunting in Siberian indigenous contexts and therefore cannot be considered as being close to the idea of mimesis in hunting.

The former practice is extraordinary and experimental: through it, both people and animals learn about each other in the course of daily contact. People also learn about themselves and the spiritual world they inhabit. In short, sympathetic magic is about imitation and transformation.

Contagious magic, in brief, is a perception of a mystical character where a part is substituted for the whole Taussig Thus, a wild animal substitutes its species, giving an idea not only of communication with an individual animal, but also with the entire species. The vanguard spirit here serves as a magical bridge linking the human, animal, and spiritual realms.

As I will show later, the vanguard spirit of people is believed to be a wild animal. However, even if taking a wild animal home is a matter of entertainment, the practice is not limited by this attitude. I shall look at this idea through the lenses of my fieldwork and the theories of mimesis in Siberia convincingly provided by Taussig. I imply here that a wild animal brought into a camp represents a part of a world of wild animals and that people conceptualise their knowledge about wild animals and design their perception of a taiga life with the help of one individual animal.

This set of resources makes the region attractive for industrial activities. Unsurprisingly, therefore, it became the focus of state interest during the Soviet period. As a result, the geological settlement of Chena was founded in the mountains, which allowed for large-scale geological exploration. The Evenki of the Zabaikal region have strong links with the Evenki of Yakutia: some of the local reindeer herders can speak three languages Evenki, Russian, and Yakut fluently. Davydov, Amudisy, June It is located amidst the larch taiga, although one can also encounter other types of trees, such as elfin wood, spruce, or pine.

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After the collapse of the Soviet Union, he did not give up traditional reindeer herding and tried to restore reindeer breeding in the local mountainous taiga. Spiridon runs two herds and is currently considering whether to create another for his younger son. However, this expectation cannot be attached to Evenki clan communities alone, and it will be contextualised and interpreted according to different localities and communities.

Meaning of "free spirit" in the English dictionary

Here I will examine some ethnographic accounts, which testify to the experimental character of the Evenki people not only as hunters but also as observers. I shall show how prey may change its role in hunting contexts and become a companion. The fact that some wild animals received names alerted my curiosity, and I started to concentrate more on this. Hunters appreciate it if an animal displays curiosity and interest in the human world and welcome such relationships.


Although similar animals may be brought in as prey, an animal that demonstrates an intention to interact with people is approached as an exception. This animal might be granted a name. Social relationships with wild animals in North Baikal are relevant only for small animals, such as muskrats, ermine, and chipmunks; however, in Amudisy, reindeer herders experience interactions with hares, deer, and moose 5.

These particular interactions will be addressed in the next paragraph. This illustrated some broader ethnographic examples of how and why the Selkups tamed wild animals:. The Selkups bred the puppies of Arctic foxes. They took them in the spring time, kept them in special cages, and fed them during the summer. In late autumn, right before the hunting season, they slaughtered them.

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According to the narratives of some elderly Selkups, earlier people had tamed bear cubs as hunting bears. Other names made these bears disobedient and angry. Bears that grew up in such conditions became good hunters for the wild of their own kind and had much better chances of winning battles with them. Wild geese and ducks were also kept in chum. Geese were very easy to tame. Even if they flew away for water, they always came back home.

In the autumn, people slaughtered them, too. Nutcrackers and cuckoos were also among tamed birds. Shirokogoroff gives us an interesting approach to indigenous relations with wild animals and animals in general in his famous book, Psychomental Complex of the Tungus. He gives us a detailed description of the Tungus as excellent observers, generalisers, and experimenters Shirokogoroff , pp. The Tungus, as the scholar wrote, possess much greater knowledge about animals than Europeans. The Tungus observe wild animals in their natural habitat and study them anatomically, doing both without any particular aim.

The Tungus always make hypotheses and are happy to spend a great deal of time observing and experimenting with animals. However, I have to emphasise the difference in attitude when it comes to taming either small or large animals. Taming small animals demands less concentration and happens spontaneously; in most cases, it happens on the initiative of the animals themselves.

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Taming large animals, such as moose, is another type of process. The Evenki consider it a serious enterprise undertaken on the initiative of people. In both cases, however, principles of reciprocity are central. There are expectations of mutual benefits, such as knowledge or practical outcomes relevant for forest life.

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In this paragraph, I focus on the first type of relationship: I will consider the other variant shortly. He got used to us and we domesticated Ru. He even took food from our hands. He was jumping from shelf to shelf and we shared food with him from one plate. We enjoyed his company, he deserved his meal. He was a good hunter. You know, mice are very dangerous in the forest: they might bring serious diseases, but we did not have a single one! I was taken aback by this unexpected and fantastic story. We also had an ermine, well, even two. They liked eating boiled fish. We fed them and they took it with pleasure. We also fed them with the flesh Ru.