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New Hampshire, and New York soon follow. Virginia amends its fugitive slave law to include the fining of people who harbor runaway slaves. They are fined 30 pounds of tobacco for every night they provide shelter to a runaway slave.


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Virginia reverses the presumption of English law that the child follows the status of his father, and enacts a law that makes the free or enslaved status of children dependent on the status of the mother. Black and white indentured servants plan a rebellion in Gloucester County, Virginia. Their plans are discovered and the leaders are executed. Maryland slave laws rules that all Africans arriving in the colony are presumed to be slaves. Free European American women who marry enslaved men lose their freedom. Children of European American women and enslaved men are enslaved. Other North American colonies develop similar laws.

In South Carolina every new white settler is granted twenty acres for each black male slave and ten acres for each black female slave he or she brings into the colony. A planned revolt of enslaved Africans and indentured servants is uncovered in Gloucester County, Virginia.

In Virginia, the enslaved African's status is clearly differentiated from the indentured servant's when colonial laws decree that enslavement is for life and is transferred to the children through the mother. Black and slave become synonymous, and enslaved Africans are subject to harsher and more brutal control than other laborers. Maryland enacts the first law in Colonial America banning marriage between white women and black men.

England enacts strict laws regarding enslaved Africans in its colonies. An enslaved African is forbidden to leave the plantation without a pass, and never on Sunday.

An enslaved African may not possess weapons or signaling mechanisms such as horns or whistles. Punishment for an owner who kills an enslaved African is a pound fine. Virginia declares that baptism does not free a slave from bondage, thereby abandoning the Christian tradition of not enslaving other Christians. The Massachusetts legislature passes a law that enables its citizens to sell the children of enslaved Africans into bondage, thus separating them from their parents. The Virginia Assembly enact law that allows all non-Christians who arrive by ship to be enslaved.

A Maryland law states that the conversion of enslaved African Americans to Christianity does not affect their status as enslaved people. Virginia law now bans prosecution for the killing of a slave if the death comes during the course of his his or her apprehension. The Massachusetts legislature passes a law that forbids European Americans from engaging in any trade or commerce with an African American.

Nathaniel Bacon leads an unsuccessful rebellion of whites and blacks against the English colonial government in Virginia. Virginia enacts a law that forbids all blacks from carrying arms and requires enslaved blacks to carry certificates at all times when leaving the slaveowner's plantation. Maryland laws mandate that children of European servant women and African men are free.

A new slave code in Virginia prohibits weapons for slaves, requires passes beyond the limits of the plantation and forbids self-defense by any African Americans against any European American. New York enacts its first slave codes. They restrict the freedom of movement and the ability to trade of all enslaved people in the colony. New York law forbids enslaved Africans and Native Americans from having meetings or carrying firearms. Quakers in Germantown, Pennsylvania denounce slavery in the first recorded formal protest in North America against the enslavement of Africans.

Virginia enacts a new law which punishes white men and women for marrying black or Indians. Children of such interracial liaisons become the property of the church for 30 years. The success of rice cultivation in South Carolina encourages the importation of larger numbers of enslaved laborers especially from Senegal and other rice producing regions of West Africa. Quaker religious leaders warn that members who own slaves may be expelled from the demonination. The New York Assembly enacts a law which prohibits enslaved Africans from testifying against whites or gathering in groups larger than three on public streets.

The Colonial Virginia Assembly defined as slaves all servants brought into the colony who were not Christians in their original countries as well as Indians sold to the colonists by other Native Americans. Africans in South Carolina outnumber Europeans, making it the first English colony with a black majority. Nine whites are killed and an unknown number of blacks die in the uprising. Colonial authorities execute 21 slaves and six commit suicide.

England secures the exclusive right to transport slaves to the Spanish colonies in America. New Orleans is founded by the French.

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By the city has more enslaved black men than free white men. South Carolina passes laws requiring enslaved people to wear clothing identifying them as slaves. Freed slaves are required to leave the colony within six months or risk reenslavement. An indentured black servant petitions a Massachusetts Court and wins his freedom after the death of his master. A score of whites and more than twice as many black slaves are killed as the armed slaves try to flee to Florida. Nineteen white citizens of Darien, Georgia petition the colonial governor to continue the ban on the importation of Africans into the colony, calling African enslavement morally wrong.

Thirteen African American men are burned at the stake and another 17 black men, two white men and two white women are hanged. Seventy blacks and seven whites are permanently expelled from the city. South Carolina's colonial legislature enacts the most extensive slave restrictions in British North America.

The laws ban the teaching of enslaved people to read and write, prohibits their assembling in groups or earning money for their activities. The law also permits slaveowners to kill rebellious slaves. A description of an Indian raid on Terry's hometown in Massachusetts, the poem will be passed down orally and published in Anthony Benezet persuades fellow Philadelphia Quakers to open the first free school for black children in the colonies. This is believed to be the first autobiographical work written by an enslaved African living in British North America.

This is believed to be the first volume of poetry written and published by an African American. It is the first book written by an African American woman published in the United States and only the second book in the nation's history authored by a woman to be published. A group of enslaved blacks petition the Massachusetts General Court legislature insisting they too have a natural right to their freedom. General George Washington reverses his earlier policy of rejecting the services of slaves and free blacks in the army. Five thousand African-Americans serve during the Revolutionary War including two predominantly black units in Massachusetts, one in Connecticut, one in Rhode Island.

This is the first abolitionist meeting in North America. In the organization becomes the Pennsylvania Abolition Society with Benjamin Franklin as its first president. On Nov. The American War of Independence.

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On July 8, Vermont becomes the first political jurisdiction in the United States to abolish slavery. It is the first and only all-black military unit to fight on the Patriot side in the American Revolution. It is the first cultural organization established by blacks in North America. Pennsylvania adopts first gradual emancipation law. All children of enslaved people born after Nov.

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Paul Cuffee, a Boston merchant and shipowner, leads six other free blacks in petitioning the Massacusetts to end their taxation without representation. Approximately 5, African Americans served with Patriot forces. Three times that many served with the British although not all of them leave the new nation.

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Congress rejects Thomas Jefferson's proposal to exclude slavery from all western territories after On July 13, Congress enacts the Northwest Ordinance, which establishes formal procedures for transforming territories into states. It provides for the eventual establishment of three to five states in the area north of the Ohio River, to be considered equal with the original The Ordinance includes a Bill of Rights that guarantees freedom of religion, the right to trial by jury, public education and a ban on slavery in the region. The U. Constitution is drafted.

It provides for the continuation of the slave trade for another 20 years and required states to aid slaveholders in the recovery of fugitive slaves. It also stipulates that a slave counts as three-fifths of a man for purposes of determining representation in the House of Representatives. Census of First Census of the U. Population : Total population, 3,,, Black Population: , It is the first book of science published by an African American.

Providing assistance to fugitive slaves is now a criminal offense. Bowdoin College is founded in Maine.


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It later becomes a center for Abolitionist activity; Gen.